Rift–drift transition in a magma-rich system: the Gop Rift–Laxmi Basin case study, West India
M. Nemčok, S. Rybár, 2017. "Rift–drift transition in a magma-rich system: the Gop Rift–Laxmi Basin case study, West India", Tectonics of the Deccan Large Igneous Province, S. Mukherjee, A. A. Misra, G. Calvès, M. Nemčok
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This paper studies the magma-rich Gop Rift–Laxmi Basin, West India, which underwent the mantle first–crust second break-up mode. It draws from reflection seismic and gravity data from this abandoned system. Seismic images document that the crustal necking was associated with the development of seawards-dipping reflector wedges deformed by landwards-dipping detachment faults. A wide crustal necking zone indicates that the ductile lower crust was still present during necking. Observed uneven detachment fault spacing indicates the effect of upper-crustal anisotropy. Comparison of the seismic images through progressively more mature stages of the rift–drift transition documents that the final stages of thinning represented the time period when the upper-crustal wide and symmetrical rift architecture changed to the asymmetrical one, and the decoupled system to the coupled one. It further indicates that the last crustal layer was broken with a convex-up fault that was associated with an excess magmatic event. The fault propagation represented the first spontaneous deformation unaffected by the pre-existing anisotropy. Subsequent drift of the two plates was associated with melt-assisted spreading and spontaneous faulting. The faulting geometry and sequence controlled which of the conjugate margins ended up with a volcanic outer high, representing the record of the break-up-locating excess magmatism.
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Understanding the Deccan Trap Large Igneous Province in western India is important for deciphering the India–Seychelles rifting mechanism. This book presents 13 studies that address the development of this province from diverse perspectives including field structural geology, geochemistry, analytical modelling, geomorphology and geophysics (e.g., palaeomagnetism, gravity and magnetic anomalies, and seismic imaging). Together, these papers indicate that the tectonics of Deccan is much more complicated than previously thought. Key findings include: the Deccan province can be divided into several blocks; the existence of a rift-induced palaeo-slope; constraints on the eruption period; rift–drift transition mechanisms determined for magma-rich systems; the tectonic role of the Deccan or Réunion plumes; sub-surface structures reported from boreholes; the delineation of the crust–mantle structure; the documentation of sub-surface tectonic boundaries; post-Deccan-Trap basin inversion; deformed dykes around Mumbai, and also from the eastern part of the Deccan Traps, documented in the field.