APPLICATIONS OF AMPLITUDE VS OFFSET AS AN EXPLORATION TOOL IN THE LOUISIANA AND TEXAS SHELF
DAVID J. HALL, JOHN A. ADAMICK, DEREK SKOYLES, JOHN DEWILDT, JOE ERICKSON, 1996. "APPLICATIONS OF AMPLITUDE VS OFFSET AS AN EXPLORATION TOOL IN THE LOUISIANA AND TEXAS SHELF", Stratigraphic Analysis Utilizing Advanced Geophysical, Wireline and Borehole Technology for Petroleum Exploration and Production, Jory A. Pacht, Robert E. Sheriff, Bob F. Perkins
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Over the past decade in the Louisiana and Texas shelf, AVO technology has been primarily applied to confirming mature prospects before drilling and utilized in producing field development. We suggest that AVO may also be productively used in exploration programs, but only when properly calibrated to local geological and reservoir conditions. Calculation of dozens of AVO attributes on hundreds of miles of modern, high quality 2-D data in an area of already producing fields demonstrates that reliance on a single “quick-look” attribute (e.g., the product of normal incidence amplitude and gradient) can be particularly misleading. Important elements in an adequate AVO analysis include 1) sequence-stratigraphic context to establish systems tract boundaries, 2) calibration to local petro-physical variations, 3) development of appropriate sets of attributes designed to display reservoir and fluid content properties, and 4) forward modeling to quantify AVO effects for relevant acquisition, processing, and signal/noise (S/N) factors. Extension of AVO techniques to 3-D data provides better resolution, redundancy, and horizon mapping capabilities. Because offset can be considered an additional dimension, the power of 3-D volume interpretation software (auto-tracking and amplitude extraction) can be applied directly to AVO inline interpretations. Examples of AVO effects over producing reservoirs offshore Texas and Louisiana illustrate both the successes and pitfalls of AVO techniques. AVO can be an important adjunct to interpretation of amplitude anomalies, particularly when used in the context of local stratigraphic conditions.