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Book Chapter

Hazard mitigation and crisis management during major flank eruptions at Etna volcano: reporting on real experience

By
Alessandro Bonaccorso
Alessandro Bonaccorso
1
Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Catania – Osservatorio Etneo Piazza Roma 2, 95125 Catania, Italy
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Sonia Calvari
Sonia Calvari
1
Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Catania – Osservatorio Etneo Piazza Roma 2, 95125 Catania, Italy
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Enzo Boschi
Enzo Boschi
1
Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Catania – Osservatorio Etneo Piazza Roma 2, 95125 Catania, Italy
2
University of Bologna, Department of Physics, Section Geophysics Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna, Italy
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Published:
January 01, 2016

Abstract

Etna volcano is characterized by frequent effusive eruptions from the summit craters or from flank fissures, and these have often threatened villages, infrastructures and tourist facilities. Considerable experience of lava-flow mitigation has been gained by scientists working on this volcano, and in this paper we principally discuss the problems arising from lava flows emplaced during the 2002–03 flank eruption, when eruptive fissures opened both on the northern and southern flanks of the volcano, feeding lava flows towards several villages, tourist facilities and forests. We highlight the importance of the monitoring system to follow the spreading of eruptive fissures and predict when they stopped propagating. We illustrate the value of thermal mapping in identifying active lava flows, in measuring effusion rates to estimate the maximum distance that flows can travel, and in obtaining reliable lava-flow simulations in real time in order to predict possible paths of the lava flow and to adopt the most appropriate solutions to limit its damage. Collaborations between scientists from different institutions and fields once again proved essential to understand and model the eruptive processes, to mitigate hazards and to obtain the best results.

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Contents

Geological Society, London, Special Publications

Detecting, Modelling and Responding to Effusive Eruptions

A. J. L. Harris
A. J. L. Harris
Université Blaise Pascal, France
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T. De Groeve
T. De Groeve
Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Italy
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F. Garel
F. Garel
Université de Montpellier, France
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S. A. Carn
S. A. Carn
Michigan Technological University, USA
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Geological Society of London
Volume
426
ISBN electronic:
9781862399587
Publication date:
January 01, 2016

References

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