Inorganic Heterostructured Materials Based on Clay Minerals
Porous heterostructures based on clay minerals are of great importance, especially in developing nanoporous materials with pre-designed properties, e.g. so that they can be used as alternatives to zeolites (as catalysts). Pillaring strategies have been applied for many years to prepare conventional pillared clays (PILCs) and more recently clay heterostructures with modulated and larger porosity. Here, an overview of the diverse types of, and the main approaches developed to prepare, inorganic heterostructures based on clay minerals is given, from the classical PILCs to the most recent systems prepared by assembly of clay minerals and other inorganic solids. The state of the art in terms of strategies of synthesis, new trends, and applications beyond catalysis are described to highlight the many opportunities still available in this research area.