Diffraction imaging by multifocusing
Alex Berkovitch, Igor Belfer, Yehuda Hassin, Evgeny Landa, 2016. "Diffraction imaging by multifocusing", Seismic Diffraction, Kamil Klem-Musatov, Henning Hoeber, Michael Pelissier, Tijmen Jan Moser
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Correct identification of geologic discontinuities, such as faults, pinch-outs, and small-size scattering objects, is a primary challenge of the seismic method. Seismic response from these objects is encoded in diffractions. Our method images local heterogeneities of the subsurface using diffracted seismic events. The method is based on coherent summation of diffracted waves arising in media that include interface discontinuities and local velocity heterogeneities. This is done using a correlation procedure that coherently focuses diffraction energy on a seismic section by flattening diffraction events using a new local-time-correction formula to parameterize diffraction traveltime curves. This time correction, which is based on the multifocusing method, depends on two parameters: the emergent angle and the radius of curvature of the diffracted wavefront. These parameters are estimated directly from prestack seismic traces. The diffraction multifocusing stack (DMFS) can separate diffracted and reflected energy on a stacked section by focusing diffractions to the diffraction location and defocusing the reflection energy over a large area.
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The use of diffraction imaging to complement the seismic reflection method is rapidly gaining momentum in the oil and gas industry. As the industry moves toward exploiting smaller and more complex conventional reservoirs and extensive new unconventional resource plays, the application of the seismic diffraction method to image sub-wavelength features such as small-scale faults, fractures and stratigraphic pinchouts is expected to increase dramatically over the next few years. “Seismic Diffraction” covers seismic diffraction theory, modeling, observation, and imaging. Papers and discussion include an overview of seismic diffractions, including classic papers which introduced the potential of diffraction phenomena in seismic processing; papers on the forward modeling of seismic diffractions, with an emphasis on the theoretical principles; papers which describe techniques for diffraction mathematical modeling as well as laboratory experiments for the physical modeling of diffractions; key papers dealing with the observation of seismic diffractions, in near-surface-, reservoir-, as well as crustal studies; and key papers on diffraction imaging.