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Book Chapter

Diffraction imaging in depth

By
T.J. Moser
T.J. Moser
^Zeehelden Geoservices, van Alkemadelaan 550A, 2597 AV ‘s-Gravenhage, The Netherlands, and 2Zeehelden Geoservices, 2e de Riemerstraat 184, 2513 CZ ‘s-Gravenhage, The Netherlands Received October 2007, revision accepted February 2008
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C.B. Howard
C.B. Howard
^Zeehelden Geoservices, van Alkemadelaan 550A, 2597 AV ‘s-Gravenhage, The Netherlands, and 2Zeehelden Geoservices, 2e de Riemerstraat 184, 2513 CZ ‘s-Gravenhage, The Netherlands Received October 2007, revision accepted February 2008
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Published:
January 01, 2016

Abstract

High resolution imaging is of great value to an interpreter, for instance to enable identification of small scale faults, and to locate formation pinch-out positions. Standard approaches to obtain high-resolution information, such as coherency analysis and structure-oriented filters, derive attributes from stacked, migrated images. Since they are image-driven, these techniques are sensitive to artifacts due to an inadequate migration velocity; in fact the attribute derivation is not based on the physics of wave propagation. Diffracted waves on the other hand have been recognized as physically reliable carriers of high- or even super-resolution structural information. However, high-resolution information, encoded in diffractions, is generally lost during the conventional processing sequence, indeed migration kernels in current migration algorithms are biased against diffractions. We propose here methods for a diffraction-based, data-oriented approach to image resolution. We also demonstrate the different behaviour of diffractions compared to specular reflections and how this can be leveraged to assess characteristics of subsurface features. In this way a rough surface such as a fault plane or unconformity may be distinguishable on a diffraction image and not on a traditional reflection image.

We outline some characteristic properties of diffractions and diffraction imaging, and present two novel approaches to diffraction imaging in the depth domain. The first technique is based on reflection focusing in the depth domain and subsequent filtering of reflections from prestack data. The second technique modifies the migration kernel and consists of a reverse application of stationary-phase migration to suppress contributions from specular reflections to the diffraction image. Both techniques are proposed as a complement to conventional full-wave pre-stack depth migration, and both assume the existence of an accurate migration velocity.

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Contents

Society of Exploration Geophysicists Geophysics Reprint Series

Seismic Diffraction

Kamil Klem-Musatov
Kamil Klem-Musatov
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Henning Hoeber
Henning Hoeber
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Michael Pelissier
Michael Pelissier
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Tijmen Jan Moser
Tijmen Jan Moser
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Society of Exploration Geophysicists
Volume
30
ISBN electronic:
9781560803188
Publication date:
January 01, 2016

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