Poststack velocity analysis by separation and imaging of seismic diffractions
Sergey Fomel, Evgeny Landa, M. Turhan Taner, 2016. "Poststack velocity analysis by separation and imaging of seismic diffractions", Seismic Diffraction, Kamil Klem-Musatov, Henning Hoeber, Michael Pelissier, Tijmen Jan Moser
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Small geologic features manifest themselves in seismic data in the form of diffracted waves, which are fundamentally different from seismic reflections. Using two field-data examples and one synthetic example, we demonstrate the possibility of separating seismic diffractions in the data and imaging them with optimally chosen migration velocities. Ourcri-teria for separating reflection and diffraction events are the smoothness and continuity of local event slopes that correspond to reflection events. For optimal focusing, we develop the local varimax measure. The objectives of this work are velocity analysis implemented in the poststack domain and high-resolution imaging of small-scale heterogeneities. Our examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for high-resolution imaging of such geologic features as faults, channels, and salt boundaries.
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The use of diffraction imaging to complement the seismic reflection method is rapidly gaining momentum in the oil and gas industry. As the industry moves toward exploiting smaller and more complex conventional reservoirs and extensive new unconventional resource plays, the application of the seismic diffraction method to image sub-wavelength features such as small-scale faults, fractures and stratigraphic pinchouts is expected to increase dramatically over the next few years. “Seismic Diffraction” covers seismic diffraction theory, modeling, observation, and imaging. Papers and discussion include an overview of seismic diffractions, including classic papers which introduced the potential of diffraction phenomena in seismic processing; papers on the forward modeling of seismic diffractions, with an emphasis on the theoretical principles; papers which describe techniques for diffraction mathematical modeling as well as laboratory experiments for the physical modeling of diffractions; key papers dealing with the observation of seismic diffractions, in near-surface-, reservoir-, as well as crustal studies; and key papers on diffraction imaging.