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Book Chapter

Imaging discontinuities on seismic sections

By
Ernest R. Kanasewich
Ernest R. Kanasewich
Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta., Canada T6G 2J1.
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Suhas M. Phadke
Suhas M. Phadke
Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta., Canada T6G 2J1.
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Published:
January 01, 2016

Abstract

In routine seismic processing, normal moveout (NMO) corrections are performed to enhance the reflected signals on comrnoti-depth-point or common-midpoint stacked sections. However, when faults are present, reflection interference from the two blocks and the diffractions from Iheir edges hinder fault location determination. Destruction of diffraction patterns by poststack migration further inhibits proper imaging of diffracting centers.

This paper presents a new technique which helps in Ihc interpretation of diffracting edges by concentrating the signal amplitudes from discontinuous diffracting points on seismic sections. It involves application to the data of moveout and amplitude corrections appropriate to an assumed diffractor location. The maximum diffraction amplitude occurs at the location of the receiver for which the diffracting discontinuity is beneath the source-receiver midpoint. Since the amplitudes of these diffracted signals drop very rapidly on either side of the midpoint, an appropriate amplitude correction must be applied. Also, because the diffracted signals are present on all traces, one can use all of them to obtain a stacked trace for one possible diffractor location. Repetition of this procedure for diffractors assumed to be located beneath each surface point results in the common-fault-point (CFP) stacked section, which shows diffractor locations by high amplitudes.

The method was tested for synthetic data with and without noise. It proves to be quite effective, but is sensitive to the velocity model used for moveout corrections. Therefore, the velocity model obtained from NMO stacking is generally used for enhancing diffractor locations by stacking. Kinally, the technique was applied to a field reflection data set from an area south of Princess well in Alberta.

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Contents

Society of Exploration Geophysicists Geophysics Reprint Series

Seismic Diffraction

Kamil Klem-Musatov
Kamil Klem-Musatov
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Henning Hoeber
Henning Hoeber
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Michael Pelissier
Michael Pelissier
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Tijmen Jan Moser
Tijmen Jan Moser
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Society of Exploration Geophysicists
Volume
30
ISBN electronic:
9781560803188
Publication date:
January 01, 2016

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