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Feasibility of detecting near-surface feature with Rayleigh-wave diffraction

By
Jianghai Xia
Jianghai Xia
Kansas Geological Survey, The University of Kansas, 1930 Constant Ave., Lawrence, KS 66047, United States
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Jonathan E. Nyquist
Jonathan E. Nyquist
Department of Geology, Beury Hall, 1901 N 13th St, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122, United States
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Yixian Xu
Yixian Xu
The State Key Laboratory of Mineral Resources and Geological Processes, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074, PR China
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Mary J.S. Roth
Mary J.S. Roth
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Lafayette College, Easton, PA 18042, United States
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Richard D. Miller
Richard D. Miller
Kansas Geological Survey, The University of Kansas, 1930 Constant Ave., Lawrence, KS 66047, United States
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Published:
January 01, 2016

Abstract

Detection of near-surfaces features such as voids and faults is challenging due to the complexity of near-surface materials and the limited resolution of geophysical methods. Although multichannel, high-frequency, surface-wave techniques can provide reliable shear (S)-wave velocities in different geological settings, they are not suitable for detecting voids directly based on anomalies of the S-wave velocity because of limitations on the resolution of S-wave velocity profiles inverted from surface-wave phase velocities. Therefore, we studied the feasibility of directly detecting near-surfaces features with surface-wave diffractions. Based on the properties of surface waves, we have derived a Rayleigh-wave diffraction traveltime equation. We also have solved the equation for the depth to the top of a void and an average velocity of Rayleigh waves. Using these equations, the depth to the top of a void/fault can be determined based on traveltime data from a diffraction curve. In practice, only two diffraction times are necessary to define the depth to the top ofa void/fault and the average Rayleigh-wave velocity that generates the diffraction curve. We used four two-dimensional square voids to demonstrate the feasibility of detecting a void with Rayleigh-wave diffractions: a 2 m by 2 m with a depth to the top of the void of 2 m, 4 m by 4 m with a depth to the top of the void of 7 m, and 6 m by 6 m with depths to the top of the void 12 m and 17 m. We also modeled surface waves due to a vertical fault. Rayleigh-wave diffractions were recognizable for all these models after FK filtering was applied to the synthetic data. The Rayleigh-wave diffraction traveltime equation was verified by the modeled data. Modeling results suggested that FK filtering is critical to enhance diffracted surface waves. A real-world example is presented to show how to utilize the derived equation of surface-wave diffractions. © 2006 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved.

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Society of Exploration Geophysicists Geophysics Reprint Series

Seismic Diffraction

Kamil Klem-Musatov
Kamil Klem-Musatov
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Henning Hoeber
Henning Hoeber
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Michael Pelissier
Michael Pelissier
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Tijmen Jan Moser
Tijmen Jan Moser
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Society of Exploration Geophysicists
Volume
30
ISBN electronic:
9781560803188
Publication date:
January 01, 2016

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