Stratigraphic and Structural Interpretations Using Diffraction Seismograms
Richard K. Snavely, A. K. M. Sarwar, 2016. "Stratigraphic and Structural Interpretations Using Diffraction Seismograms", Seismic Diffraction, Kamil Klem-Musatov, Henning Hoeber, Michael Pelissier, Tijmen Jan Moser
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A two dimensional seismic diffraction modeling method has been applied to an east-west cross-section across Bay Marchand Blocks 2-4 located one and a quarter miles north of the Bay Marchand/South Timbalier area boundary. A twenty layer geologic depth model has been constructed from the correlation of SP-induction and sonic well logs. Each layer has been assigned a velocity determined from the corresponding sonic logs and a density approximated from Gardner’s rule. A synthetic seismogram has been generated from the geologic depth model using a diffraction modeling computer program.
Both the synthetic seismogram and the seismic field trace illustrate a piercement salt dome, graben faulting, pinchout reflectors and salt truncation reflectors. The reflector shapes, the shadow zone due to faulting and the diffraction pattern which outlines the boundary of the salt dome on the synthetic seismic section are similar to those on the field seismic section.
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The use of diffraction imaging to complement the seismic reflection method is rapidly gaining momentum in the oil and gas industry. As the industry moves toward exploiting smaller and more complex conventional reservoirs and extensive new unconventional resource plays, the application of the seismic diffraction method to image sub-wavelength features such as small-scale faults, fractures and stratigraphic pinchouts is expected to increase dramatically over the next few years. “Seismic Diffraction” covers seismic diffraction theory, modeling, observation, and imaging. Papers and discussion include an overview of seismic diffractions, including classic papers which introduced the potential of diffraction phenomena in seismic processing; papers on the forward modeling of seismic diffractions, with an emphasis on the theoretical principles; papers which describe techniques for diffraction mathematical modeling as well as laboratory experiments for the physical modeling of diffractions; key papers dealing with the observation of seismic diffractions, in near-surface-, reservoir-, as well as crustal studies; and key papers on diffraction imaging.