Numerical examples of high-frequency synthetic seismograms of body waves in a 2-D layered medium with complex interfaces (faults, wedges, curvilinear, corrugated) are presented. The wave field modeling algorithm combines the possibilities of the ray method and the edge wave superposition method. This approach preserves all advantages of the ray method and eliminates restrictions related to diffraction by boundary edges and to caustic effects in singular regions. The method does not require two-point ray tracing (souroe-to-receiver), and the position of the source, as well as the type of source, and the position of receivers can be chosen arbitrarily. The memory and the time required for synthetic seismogram compulation are similar to ray synthetic seismograms. The computation of the volume or the medium (the Fresnel volume or Fresnel zones), which gives the essential contribution to the wave field, is included in the modeling program package. In the case of complicated irregular interface (or a layered medium with a regular ray field at the last interface), the method displays a high accuracy of wave field computation. Otherwise, the method can be considered a modification of the ray method with regularization by the superposition of edge waves.
Figures & Tables
The use of diffraction imaging to complement the seismic reflection method is rapidly gaining momentum in the oil and gas industry. As the industry moves toward exploiting smaller and more complex conventional reservoirs and extensive new unconventional resource plays, the application of the seismic diffraction method to image sub-wavelength features such as small-scale faults, fractures and stratigraphic pinchouts is expected to increase dramatically over the next few years. “Seismic Diffraction” covers seismic diffraction theory, modeling, observation, and imaging. Papers and discussion include an overview of seismic diffractions, including classic papers which introduced the potential of diffraction phenomena in seismic processing; papers on the forward modeling of seismic diffractions, with an emphasis on the theoretical principles; papers which describe techniques for diffraction mathematical modeling as well as laboratory experiments for the physical modeling of diffractions; key papers dealing with the observation of seismic diffractions, in near-surface-, reservoir-, as well as crustal studies; and key papers on diffraction imaging.