F. Hron, G. H. Chan, 2016. "Tutorial on the Numerical Modeling of Edge Diffracted Waves by the Ray Method", Seismic Diffraction, Kamil Klem-Musatov, Henning Hoeber, Michael Pelissier, Tijmen Jan Moser
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The concept of diffracted rays introduced by Keller (1962) opened the way for a ray approach in the numerical modeling of the diffraction phenomena frequently seen in the seismic field records. Unlike the computation of travel times, which has never caused any difficulties being governed by the same eikonal equation as are the rays of ordinary seismic body waves, the evaluation of the diffracted ray amplitude has been another story. In this paper we give a tutorial account of a highly promising technique for the computation of the ray amplitude of seismic waves diffracted by linear edges on seismic interfaces originally presented by Klem-Musatov (1980, 1995). We demonstrate the adequacy of this technique on a series of SH synthetic traces containing diffracted arrivals, some of them diffracted more than once. Our computer program is based on a successful combination of Klem-Musatov’s approach with the zero order approximation of the Asymptotic Ray Theory (Cerveny and Hron, 1980). We showed in the paper that both techniques are ideally suited for such a combination, since the ray amplitude evaluation in each of them is based on the same transport equation. In our tutorial review we present all formulae which are needed for a practical implementation of the method and provide their physical interpretation, wherever possible, by using the numerical examples presented in the paper.
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The use of diffraction imaging to complement the seismic reflection method is rapidly gaining momentum in the oil and gas industry. As the industry moves toward exploiting smaller and more complex conventional reservoirs and extensive new unconventional resource plays, the application of the seismic diffraction method to image sub-wavelength features such as small-scale faults, fractures and stratigraphic pinchouts is expected to increase dramatically over the next few years. “Seismic Diffraction” covers seismic diffraction theory, modeling, observation, and imaging. Papers and discussion include an overview of seismic diffractions, including classic papers which introduced the potential of diffraction phenomena in seismic processing; papers on the forward modeling of seismic diffractions, with an emphasis on the theoretical principles; papers which describe techniques for diffraction mathematical modeling as well as laboratory experiments for the physical modeling of diffractions; key papers dealing with the observation of seismic diffractions, in near-surface-, reservoir-, as well as crustal studies; and key papers on diffraction imaging.