Forty species of brachiopods from the Independence shale are described and illustrated, 27 as new. They are placed in 35 genera of which seven are diagnosed as new—Douvillinaria, Pseudodouvillina, Gamphalosia, Calvinaria, Hystricina, Acutatheca, and Thomasaria. Five genera—Skenidium, Aulacdla, Cariniferella, Leptalosia, and Grünewaldtia—are noted for the first time in the Iowa Devonian. Two species and a variety are described from the Lime Creek shale, one species and the variety are new. The Independence fauna is shown by specific comparison to be distinct from those of the Lime Creek of Iowa and the High Point Chemung of New York. It is apparently the American equivalent of the “Cuboides fauna” of Europe and therefore lower Upper Devonian in age. Correlation or synchroneity of the Independence is suggested with the Devil’s Gate limestone of Nevada, the Olentangy of Ohio, the Duffin limestone of Kentucky, and the Tully limestone of New York.