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Abstract

Some sediment-hosted base metal deposits, specifically, the clastic-dominated Zn-Pb deposits, carbonatehosted Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits, sedimentary rock-hosted stratiform copper deposits, and carbonate-hosted polymetallic (“Kipushi-type”) deposits, are or have been important sources of critical elements including Co, Ga, Ge, PGEs, and Re. Cobalt is noted in only a few clastic-dominated and MVT deposits, whereas sedimentary rock-hosted stratiform copper deposits are major producers. Gallium occurs in sphalerite from clastic-dominated and MVT deposits. Little is reported of germanium in clastic-dominated deposits; it is more commonly noted in MVT deposits (up to 4,900 ppm within sphalerite) and has been produced from carbonate-hosted polymetallic deposits (Kipushi, Tsumeb). Indium is known to be elevated in sphalerite and zinc concentrates from some MVT and clastic-dominated deposits, produced from Rammelsberg and reported from Sullivan, Red Dog, Tri-State, Viburnum Trend, Lisheen, San Vincente, and Shalipayco. Platinum and palladium have been produced from sedimentary rock-hosted stratiform copper deposits in the Polish Kupferschiefer. Sedimentary rock-hosted stratiform copper deposits in the Chu-Sarysu basin are known to have produced rhenium. Although trace element concentrations in these types of sediment-hosted ores are poorly characterized in general, available data suggest that there may be economically important concentrations of critical elements yet to be recognized.

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