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Rare-element granitic pegmatites represent highly concentrated sources of rare metals, including Li, Rb, Cs, Be, Sn, Nb, Ta, Zr, Y, REE, and U. In today’s markets, pegmatites are the principal sources of Ta, and one pegmatite (Tanco, Canada) is the sole commercial producer of Cs for use as deep drilling fluid in the form of Cs formate solution. Growth in the demand for Li-based batteries has prompted exploration for spodumene-and petalite-bearing pegmatites, and several new Canadian prospects are slated for mining. Pegmatite bodies that contain minerals in which these elements are essential structural constituents constitute less than ~1 to...

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