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Interpretation is where the rubber hits the road — the destination toward which all of the reservoir engineering, rock-physics analysis, seismic modeling, acquisition, and processing lead. Interpretation is where 4D seismic technology adds value to reservoir management. There is, of course, no single way to interpret 4D seismic data, just as there is no single way to interpret 3D seismic data. In addition, implicit in any interpretation is its tie to “groundtruth.” For 3D data, we typically tie seismic to welllog synthetics. For 4D data, however, we tie our interpretations not only to the well logs but also to dynamic reservoir information, such as production and injection rates, pressure changes, cumulative production and injection, flow simulation, and repeat logs (e.g., PLTs). That critical integration step is hard to generalize.

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