Interpretation and Data Integration
Published:January 01, 2013
Interpretation is where the rubber hits the road — the destination toward which all of the reservoir engineering, rock-physics analysis, seismic modeling, acquisition, and processing lead. Interpretation is where 4D seismic technology adds value to reservoir management. There is, of course, no single way to interpret 4D seismic data, just as there is no single way to interpret 3D seismic data. In addition, implicit in any interpretation is its tie to “groundtruth.” For 3D data, we typically tie seismic to welllog synthetics. For 4D data, however, we tie our interpretations not only to the well logs but also to dynamic reservoir information, such as production and injection rates, pressure changes, cumulative production and injection, flow simulation, and repeat logs (e.g., PLTs). That critical integration step is hard to generalize.
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Practical Applications of Time-lapse Seismic Data
Time-lapse (4D) seismic technology is a key enabler for improved hydrocarbon recovery and more cost-effective field operations. Practical Applications of Time-lapse Seismic Data (SEG Distinguished Instructor Series No. 16) shows how 4D seismic data are used for reservoir surveillance, how they provide valuable insight on dynamic reservoir properties such as fluid saturation, pressure, and temperature, and how they add value to reservoir management. The material, based on the 2013 SEG Distinguished Instructor Short Course, includes discussions of reservoir-engineering concepts and rock physics critical to the understanding of 4D data, along with topics in 4D seismic acquisition and processing. A primary focus of the book is interpretation and data integration. Case-study examples are used to demonstrate key concepts and are drawn on to demonstrate the range of interpretation methods currently employed by industry and the diversity of geologic settings and production scenarios in which 4D is making a difference. Time-lapse seismic interpretation is inherently integrative, drawing on geophysical, geologic, and reservoir-engineering data and concepts. As a result, this book should be of interest to individuals from all subsurface disciplines.