The Rock Physics behind 4D Seismic
Published:January 01, 2013
During production, changes in a reservoir’s fluid saturation, pressure, porosity, and temperature result in changes in velocity and density that lead to changes in seismic response. The link between the static and dynamic properties of a reservoir and the elastic properties of the reservoir rock is the field of seismic rock physics. An understanding of the seismic rock physics of a reservoir (sometimes known at the petroelastic model, or PEM) is essential for understanding the changes in the seismic response that result from production. Thus, the rock-physics model is part of any qualitative or quantitative 4D seismic interpretation. In addition, it is a fundamental input to 4D modeling and feasibility analyses, which will be discussed in Chapter 4.
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Practical Applications of Time-lapse Seismic Data
Time-lapse (4D) seismic technology is a key enabler for improved hydrocarbon recovery and more cost-effective field operations. Practical Applications of Time-lapse Seismic Data (SEG Distinguished Instructor Series No. 16) shows how 4D seismic data are used for reservoir surveillance, how they provide valuable insight on dynamic reservoir properties such as fluid saturation, pressure, and temperature, and how they add value to reservoir management. The material, based on the 2013 SEG Distinguished Instructor Short Course, includes discussions of reservoir-engineering concepts and rock physics critical to the understanding of 4D data, along with topics in 4D seismic acquisition and processing. A primary focus of the book is interpretation and data integration. Case-study examples are used to demonstrate key concepts and are drawn on to demonstrate the range of interpretation methods currently employed by industry and the diversity of geologic settings and production scenarios in which 4D is making a difference. Time-lapse seismic interpretation is inherently integrative, drawing on geophysical, geologic, and reservoir-engineering data and concepts. As a result, this book should be of interest to individuals from all subsurface disciplines.