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During production, changes in a reservoir’s fluid saturation, pressure, porosity, and temperature result in changes in velocity and density that lead to changes in seismic response. The link between the static and dynamic properties of a reservoir and the elastic properties of the reservoir rock is the field of seismic rock physics. An understanding of the seismic rock physics of a reservoir (sometimes known at the petroelastic model, or PEM) is essential for understanding the changes in the seismic response that result from production. Thus, the rock-physics model is part of any qualitative or quantitative 4D seismic interpretation. In addition, it is a fundamental input to 4D modeling and feasibility analyses, which will be discussed in Chapter 4.

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