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Book Chapter

Modeling, Upscaling and History Matching Thin, Irregularly-Shaped Flow Barriers: A Comprehensive Approach for Predicting Reservoir Connectivity

By
Lisa Stright
Lisa Stright
Department of Petroleum Engineering Stanford University Stanford, California 94305, USA
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Jef Caers
Jef Caers
Department of Petroleum Engineering Stanford University Stanford, California 94305, USA
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Hongmei Li
Hongmei Li
Department of Petroleum Engineering Stanford University Stanford, California 94305, USA
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Frans Van Der Vlugt
Frans Van Der Vlugt
Shell International E&P Houston, Texas USA
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Carlos Pirmez
Carlos Pirmez
Shell International E&P Houston, Texas USA
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Mark Barton
Mark Barton
Shell International E&P Houston, Texas USA
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Published:
December 01, 2006

Abstract

Accurate modeling of flow path connectivity is critical to reservoir flow performance prediction. Flow path connectivity is controlled by the complex shape, extent, and spatial relationships between pay intervals, their intersection with wells, and the existence of flow barriers between wells. This reservoir heterogeneity can be captured in a flow simulation model as facies patterns among cells and as effective properties within cells (porosity and permeability). However, fine-scale, irregularly-shaped flow barriers between cells can not be accurately represented with pixel-based modeling techniques.

To preserve these important fine-scale geological features at the flow simulation block scale, an additional modeling variable is introduced as the edge of a model cell. This cell edge is a continuous or categorical value associated with the cell face and is defined in conjunction with the cell centered property which is often reserved for facies types and/or petrophysical properties. An edge model is created that captures the facies and edge properties as a vector of information at each cell location. For the flow simulation model, the edge properties are easily translated into transmissibil-ity multipliers.

Using the example of 3D shale-drapes attached to channel-sand bodies in a deep-water depositional setting, a methodology is presented in which these shale drapes are accurately up-scaled and history matched to production data while maintaining the geological concept that describes the drape geometry. The perturbation parameter in history matching is the continuity of the shales as an edge property.

More generally, this coupled modeling of cell-center and cell-edge allows for more flexible reservoir modeling, opening up the potential for modeling and history matching complex geological features effectively at the scale that they are relevant, without additional computational cost of flow simulation.

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Contents

GCSSEPM

Reservoir Characterization: Integrating Technology and Business Practices

Roger M. Slatt
Roger M. Slatt
Houston, Texas
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Norman c. Rosen
Norman c. Rosen
Houston, Texas
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Michael Bowman
Michael Bowman
Houston, Texas
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John Castagna
John Castagna
Houston, Texas
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Timothy Good
Timothy Good
Houston, Texas
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Robert Loucks
Robert Loucks
Houston, Texas
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Rebecca Latimer
Rebecca Latimer
Houston, Texas
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Mark Scheihing
Mark Scheihing
Houston, Texas
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Hu Smith
Hu Smith
Houston, Texas
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SEPM Society for Sedimentary Geology
Volume
26
ISBN electronic:
978-0-9836096-4-3
Publication date:
December 01, 2006

GeoRef

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