Controls on Sequence Architecture in Lacustrine Basins—Insights for Sequence Stratigraphy in General
Kevin M. Bohacs, Jack E. Neal, George J. Grabowski, Jr., David J. Reynolds, Alan R. Carroll, 2002. "Controls on Sequence Architecture in Lacustrine Basins—Insights for Sequence Stratigraphy in General", Sequence Stratigraphic Models for Exploration and Production: Evolving Methodology, Emerging Models and Application Histories, John M. Armentrout, Norman C. Rosen
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The sequence-stratigraphic approach of evaluating a hierarchy of rock packages bounded by various surfaces works very well in lake strata. The expression of depositional sequences, however, varies as a function of lake depositional system, just as shallow marine-carbonate sequences look different from shallow-marine-siliciclastic sequences. Contrasts among lake and marine systems make it inappropriate to directly apply one unmodified marine sequence-stratigraphic model to all lake systems. Indeed, one lacustrine model is not applicable to all lake-basin types.
Contrasts of sequence expression among lake-basin types arise from several key attributes: Lake level and sediment supply are commonly linked closely in lake systems (most marine models assume no linkage); lake shorelines commonly move basinward by a combination of progradation and desiccation. In addition, the character of a lake is fundamentally controlled by the relative rates of potential accommodation change and supply of sediment+water, giving rise to three distinct lake-basin types: overfilled, balanced-filled, and underfilled.
These differences strongly influence the occurrence, distribution, and character of hydrocarbon source, reservoir, and seal lithologies. Sequence boundaries vary from non-existent or minimally developed, through extensive erosion and incised-valley formation, to large basinward shifts and widespread exposure. Flooding surfaces are enhanced as they are commonly coincident with decreased sediment supply.
Lowstands vary from aggradational stacks of basin-floor turbidite parasequences to basin-center evaporites surrounded by extensive desiccation surfaces. Transgressive systems tracts vary from thin and shale prone to thick and coarse-clastic prone. Highstand systems tracts range from obliquely progradational clastic shoreline parasequences to aggradational carbonate shoreline parasequences.
Successful exploration and production in lake basins requires attention to these variations.