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Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions, acid-base reactions and complex formation along with hydrolysis, precipitation and adsorption, account for the vast majority of chemical reactions and processes that occur in environmental and engineering systems. This chapter provides an overview of the basic principles of the thermodynamic and kinetic treatments of redox reactions in natural systems. Modelling redox transformations and predicting the concentrations of chemical species involved in redox reactions are the focus of this chapter. The practical utility of geochemical modelling applied to redox processes and some of its limitations are discussed and some practical modelling examples of geochemical problems are provided.

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