Paleoclimatic Applications and Modern Process Studies of Pedogenic Siderite
Greg A. Ludvigson, Luis A. González, David A. Fowle, Jennifer A. Roberts, Steven G. Driese, Mark A. Villarreal, Jon J. Smith, Marina B. Suarez, 2013. "Paleoclimatic Applications and Modern Process Studies of Pedogenic Siderite", New Frontiers in Paleopedology and Terrestrial Paleoclimatology: Paleosols and Soil Surface Analog Systems, Steven G. Driese, Lee C. Nordt
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Pedogenic siderite is a carbonate mineral that forms in the reducing groundwaters of poorly drained soils and paleosols in zonal climatic belts with strongly positive precipitation–evaporation balances. Microcrystalline and spherulitic forms of siderite are commonly recognized in micromorphologic studies of hydromorphic paleosols. Ancient paleosol sphaerosiderites commonly occur with diameters in excess of 1 mm, while modern pedogenic siderite crystal dimensions in excess of 100 µm are rare. Pedogenic siderites have been widely reported from Late Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic paleosols. The carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of pedogenic siderites have been widely used as proxies for the oxygen isotopic composition of paleoprecipitation for their respective paleosols. Modern process studies of historic pedogenic siderites are yielding a more refined understanding of the stable isotopic systematics of low-temperature siderite. These works will lead to a future change in usage of published siderite–water 18O fractionation equations.
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New Frontiers in Paleopedology and Terrestrial Paleoclimatology: Paleosols and Soil Surface Analog Systems
After initial breakthroughs in the discovery of fossil soils, or paleosols in the 1970s and early 1980s, the last several decades of intensified research have revealed the much greater role that these deposits can play in reconstructing ancient Earth surface systems. Research currently focuses on terrestrial paleoclimatology, in which climates of the past are reconstructed at temporal scales ranging from hundreds to millions of years, using paleosols as archives of that information. Such research requires interdisciplinary study of soils conducted in both modern and ancient environments. These issues and many others were discussed at the joint SEPM-NSF Workshop “Paleosols and Soil Surface Analog Systems”, held at Petrified Forest National Park.