Matthew J. Pranter, 2006. "Deepwater Reservoir Modeling", Introduction to the Petroleum Geology of Deepwater Setting, Paul Weimer, Roger M. Slatt, Renaud Bouroullec, Richard Fillon, Henry Pettingill, Matthew Pranter, Gabor Tari
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A primary goal of reservoir modeling is to construct a three-dimensional (3D), numerical representation, or computer model, of the reservoir’s rock and fluid properties. The process of modeling the 3D distributions of geologic facies, lithology, and other petrophysical properties (especially porosity and permeability) is sometimes referred to as geologic modeling. This distinguishes it from the simulation of fluid flow in the reservoir (i.e., reservoir simulation). Several 3D geologic-modeling methods and tools are used, depending on the complexity of the reservoir, the reservoir properties being modeled, the data available, the stage of field development, and the specific questions to be answered. Key questions that reservoir geoscientists and engineers ask soon after a petroleum discovery—as well as during appraisal and development of a reservoir—include:
How big is the container (reservoir)?
How much petroleum can be extracted?
How will this reservoir perform?
How widely must development wells be spaced in this geologic setting?
How should the reservoir be developed (should we use aquifer support, injectors, etc.)?
How should wells be drilled (should they be vertical, slanted, or horizontal wells)?
How can the reservoir’s development be expedited?
Why is reservoir productivity different from what was expected?
At discovery and during appraisal drilling, relatively few data are available; therefore, these questions are not easily answered. As development proceeds and additional wells and other data are acquired, these questions can be answered more completely through integrated reservoir
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Introduction to the Petroleum Geology of Deepwater Setting
This publication is intended to provide the working geologist, geophysicist, and petroleum engineer with a broad overview of the petroleum systems of deepwater settings. Deepwater depositional systems are the one type of reservoir system that cannot be easily reached, observed, and studied in the modern environment, in contrast to other siliciclastic and carbonate reservoir systems. The study of deepwater systems requires many different remote observation techniques, each of which can only provide information on one part of the entire depositional system. As a consequence, the study and understanding of deepwater depositional systems as reservoirs has lagged behind that of the other reservoir systems, whose modern processes are more easily observed and documented. For this reason, geoscientists use an integrated approach, working in interdisciplinary teams with multiple data types. The types of data used in the study of deepwater deposits include: outcrop studies, 2D and 3D seismic-reflection data (both for shallow and deep resolution), cores, conventional and specialized log suites, biostratigraphy, and well test and production information. These data sets are routinely incorporated into computer reservoir modeling programs for production performance simulation and forecasting. Technologies for deepwater exploration and development are improving rapidly. The intent of this publication is to provide information that will be usable even as the technologies advance beyond what we present here.