Overview of Deepwater-Reservoir Elements
Published:January 01, 2006
2006. "Overview of Deepwater-Reservoir Elements", Introduction to the Petroleum Geology of Deepwater Setting, Paul Weimer, Roger M. Slatt, Renaud Bouroullec, Richard Fillon, Henry Pettingill, Matthew Pranter, Gabor Tari
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As we stated in Chapter 1, several reservoir elements have now been recognized by various workers and are used routinely in industry: channel-fill, levee (thin beds), sheets (amalgamated and layered), and mass-transport deposits (slides). We describe each of these elements in a systematic manner in Chapter 6 through Chapter 9. A series of three unusual deepwater elements (remobilized sands, chalk turbidites, and carbonate debris aprons) are described in Chapter 10. Pitfalls in the interpretation of different elements are briefly summarized in Chapter 11.
The discussion of each reservoir element is organized by scales of observation. We first describe regional aspects of each element using data sets at the exploration scale (seismic: surface and shallow subsurface; buried elements at exploration and development scale). We then describe more development-scale data sets: outcrops, cores, conventional, and borehole image logs.
The purpose of this chapter is to give an overview to the following five chapters. We will: (1) describe the elements and try to equate different terminologies that have been used by different workers (a non-trivial issue); (2) discuss which data sets we use to describe deepwa-ter elements and their resolution; (3) discuss how deepwater systems vary in grain size and sediment-delivery systems; (4) describe the hierarchy of deepwater deposits and how these different elements stack stratigraphically through time; (5) discuss shallow analog studies and their importance, and (6) address how production from various elements varies between different basins, and within the same basin, in systems of differing age.
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Introduction to the Petroleum Geology of Deepwater Setting
This publication is intended to provide the working geologist, geophysicist, and petroleum engineer with a broad overview of the petroleum systems of deepwater settings. Deepwater depositional systems are the one type of reservoir system that cannot be easily reached, observed, and studied in the modern environment, in contrast to other siliciclastic and carbonate reservoir systems. The study of deepwater systems requires many different remote observation techniques, each of which can only provide information on one part of the entire depositional system. As a consequence, the study and understanding of deepwater depositional systems as reservoirs has lagged behind that of the other reservoir systems, whose modern processes are more easily observed and documented. For this reason, geoscientists use an integrated approach, working in interdisciplinary teams with multiple data types. The types of data used in the study of deepwater deposits include: outcrop studies, 2D and 3D seismic-reflection data (both for shallow and deep resolution), cores, conventional and specialized log suites, biostratigraphy, and well test and production information. These data sets are routinely incorporated into computer reservoir modeling programs for production performance simulation and forecasting. Technologies for deepwater exploration and development are improving rapidly. The intent of this publication is to provide information that will be usable even as the technologies advance beyond what we present here.