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The late Cretaceous records a warm, greenhouse, period of Earth history with a distinct ‘hot greenhouse’ interval in the latest Cenomanian and earliest Turonian. This was coupled with the highest sea levels of the Mesozoic and very low N–S temperature gradients. Polar regions are thought to have been temperate, rather than cold, although there is a body of opinion that regards some of the late Cretaceoussea-level changes as being glacioeustatic. Towards the end of the Cretaceous, there was a brief period of warming and poleward migration of planktic foraminifera that was followed by a near end-Cretaceous cooling event.

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