An overview of Neoproterozoic reservoirs in Pakistan
Athar Jamil, Riaz A. Sheikh, 2012. "An overview of Neoproterozoic reservoirs in Pakistan", Geology and Hydrocarbon Potential of Neoproterozoic–Cambrian Basins in Asia, G. M. Bhat, J. Craig, J. W. Thurow, B. Thusu, A. Cozzi
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Over time, Neoproterozoic rocks in Pakistan have intermittently attracted the interest of oil and gas exploration companies. However, despite these rocks having been penetrated by nearly 40 wells and being exposed in various parts of Pakistan, no serious efforts have yet been made to investigate their reservoir potential. Neoproterozoic rocks are exposed along the outer periphery of the Salt Range and Nagar Parker in Pakistan and in Rajasthan (India). Surface and subsurface data suggest a good correlation between outcrops in Rajasthan and wells in the Punjab Platform. However, the Neoproterozoic of the Punjab Platform seems to be somewhat different from that in Potwar, suggesting the existence of a kind of barrier or palaeo-high, separating the two basins. Proterozoic stromatolite found in a number of Himalayan sequences seems to be correlatable with similar facies encountered in other parts of the world, such as in the Abalog-1 and Yarba-1 wells in the Toudeni Basin in Mauritania and Mali, respectively. Glacial Pokhran boulder beds (representing snowball Earth) in the Hazara Basin, and reportedly in Pokran and Lawan across the border in India, also correlate with similar Neoproterozoic facies found in other parts of the world. Neoproterozoic offers a complete petroleum system. Regional data demand that the Neoproterozoic reservoir potential be re-evaluated, and a proper understanding of basinal configuration may play a vital role in future exploration success in this region.
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This volume provides a comprehensive overview of the geology and hydrocarbon potential of the major Neoproterozoic–Cambrian basins of Asia from Oman, across the Middle East and the Indian Subcontinent, to China and SE Siberia, along with new research on the region. Many of these areas (e.g., Oman, Bikaner–Nagaur Basin in India, South China and SE Siberia) host prolific Neoproterozoic–Cambrian petroleum systems with giant to supergiant fields. Three key elements: (1) tectonic stability, (2) relatively late phase of hydrocarbon generation and (3) presence of an effective evaporite seal, seem to be critical for the development of effective Neoproterozoic–Cambrian petroleum systems. These key elements appear of less consequence for the development of ‘unconventional’ hydrocarbons, and the future prospectivity in many of these basins may lie in the exploration for, and production of, shale gas and shale oil directly from the thermally mature, organic-rich source rocks.