Precambrian sedimentary basins of India: an appraisal of their petroleum potential
Prem Shanker Ojha, 2012. "Precambrian sedimentary basins of India: an appraisal of their petroleum potential", Geology and Hydrocarbon Potential of Neoproterozoic–Cambrian Basins in Asia, G. M. Bhat, J. Craig, J. W. Thurow, B. Thusu, A. Cozzi
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The Indian Proterozoic Super Basins were part of the Northern Rim of Gondwanaland prior to its break-up along six major radial fractures. The Proterozoic rocks of these basins are extensively exposed in the northern as well as the southern parts of the Indian Peninsula. Based on recently conducted geochemical and seismic surveys within these basins, followed by well drilling in the Son Valley, Ganga Valley, and the Bikaner–Nagaur basin, it is concluded that hydrocarbons have been generated within these basins and conditions conducive to hydrocarbon accumulation exist within them. The discovery of gas within Son Valley has indicated the existence of an active Mesoproterozoic petroleum system that is likely to have continued up to Infracambrian times. Based on the correlation of Indian Proterozoic Super Basins with their analogous Chinese and Australian basins, it appears that elements of a similar petroleum system exist within these basins, together with the possibility of an active Ordovician–Silurian petroleum system within the northernmost Ganga Valley Vindhyans, where sedimentation continued up to the lower Devonian. Modelling and empirical data show that the Chambal Valley, as well as the probably trap-concealed Vindhyans, underwent intense wrenching during Neoproterozoic times, accompanied by good entrapment conditions. Even the peninsular SW Cuddapah Superbasin also appears worth exploring as an element of the Meso–Neoproterozoic petroleum system.
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This volume provides a comprehensive overview of the geology and hydrocarbon potential of the major Neoproterozoic–Cambrian basins of Asia from Oman, across the Middle East and the Indian Subcontinent, to China and SE Siberia, along with new research on the region. Many of these areas (e.g., Oman, Bikaner–Nagaur Basin in India, South China and SE Siberia) host prolific Neoproterozoic–Cambrian petroleum systems with giant to supergiant fields. Three key elements: (1) tectonic stability, (2) relatively late phase of hydrocarbon generation and (3) presence of an effective evaporite seal, seem to be critical for the development of effective Neoproterozoic–Cambrian petroleum systems. These key elements appear of less consequence for the development of ‘unconventional’ hydrocarbons, and the future prospectivity in many of these basins may lie in the exploration for, and production of, shale gas and shale oil directly from the thermally mature, organic-rich source rocks.