Highly Crystalline Montmorillonite Obtained by Treatment with TiCl4 Aqueous Solutions
Shoji Yamanaka, Tsuguo Ishihara, Makoto Hattori, 1985. "Highly Crystalline Montmorillonite Obtained by Treatment with TiCl4 Aqueous Solutions", Proceedings of the International Clay Conference Denver, 1985, Leonard G. Schultz, H. van Olphen, Frederick A. Mumpton
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After dispersion in 1–0.5 M TiCl4 aqueous solutions and carefully drying, Na-montmorillonite showed a sharp X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) pattern. Such a pattern was obtained only when the TiCl4-treated montmorillonite was dried quickly in a stream of dry air without rinsing with water. If the sample was washed with water before drying or treated with dilute TiCl4 solutions (<0.05 M), only the broad diffraction pattern typical of montmorillonite was obtained. The use of TiOS04 instead of TiCl4 also resulted in a broad pattern. Most of the XRD peaks of the pattern were indexed on the basis of a monoclinic cell with a = 5.22(1) Å, b = 9.13(2) Å, c = 11.37(2) Å, and β = 93.7(1)°. The sharpening of the XRD peaks is probably caused by hydrogen bonded interlayer water molecules coordinated with the titanium ions, which restrict the relative orientation of the adjacent silicate layers, resulting in a highly crystalline product.
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Proceedings of the International Clay Conference Denver, 1985
The papers included in this proceedings volume are representative of the research on clays being conducted in all parts of the world at the time of publication. Many of the subjects treated are controversial, and although some ideas expressed may not necessarily represent the views of the editors, the referees, or the publisher, they deserve to be brought to the attention of the international clay community.