Insect biostratigraphy of the Euramerican continental Late Pennsylvanian and Early Permian
Joerg W. Schneider, Ralf Werneburg, 2006. "Insect biostratigraphy of the Euramerican continental Late Pennsylvanian and Early Permian", Non-Marine Permian Biostratigraphy and Biochronology, Spencer G. Lucas, Giuseppe Cassinis, Joerg W. Schneider
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An insect zonation with a time resolution of 1.5–2 Ma for Late Pennsylvanian to Early Permian (Kasimovian to Artinskian) non-marine deposits is presented. The zonation is based on the directed morphogenetic evolution of colour pattern in the forewings of the blattid (cockroach) family Spiloblattinidae. This evolution is observed in lineages of succeeding species of three genera. All three genera are widely distributed in the palaeo-equatorial zone from Europe to North America, that is, in the Euramerican biota province. Increasing reports of spiloblattinid zone species in condont-bearing, interfingered marine/continental strata of North American Appalachian, Mid-Continent and West Texas basins could be the key to direct biostratigraphical correlations of pure continental profiles, as are present in the most parts of the Hercynides, to the global marine scale.
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Non-Marine Permian Biostratigraphy and Biochronology
During the Permian, the single supercontinent Pangaea stretched from pole to pole. Early Permian glacial deposits are found in southern Gondwana. Along the sutures of Pangaea, mountain ranges towered over vast tropical lowlands. Interior areas included dry deserts where dune sands accumulated. Gypsum and halite beds document the evaporation of hot, shallow seas that formed the most extensive salt deposits in the geological record. The Permian period (251 to 299 Ma) encompasses nine ages (stages) arranged into three epochs (series). Most of the Permian marine timescale has been defined by global stratotype sections and points for the stage boundaries. This volume presents new data regarding the biostratigraphy and biochronology of the non-marine Permian and provides a basis for temporally ordering Permian geological and biotic history on land, and correlating that history to events in the marine realm.