Tetrapod footprint ichno-associations from French Permian basins. Comparisons with other Euramerican ichnofaunas
Georges Gand, Marc Durand, 2006. "Tetrapod footprint ichno-associations from French Permian basins. Comparisons with other Euramerican ichnofaunas", Non-Marine Permian Biostratigraphy and Biochronology, Spencer G. Lucas, Giuseppe Cassinis, Joerg W. Schneider
Download citation file:
In order to take into account the studies of the European and American (USA) collections carried out by one of the authors, and of the recent nomenclatural revisions from new footprint discoveries, which have occurred during the last decade, the authors present a critical review of the French Permian palichnofauna. The distribution of the ichnospecies in the stratigraphy of the Lodève Basin, taken as a reference, is outlined. The ichno-associations are then compared with those of other French (Provence), European (Italy, Germany) and USA basins. Based on the ages of different ichnofossiliferous formations, three successive ichnofaunal units can be distinguished in the Permian of Europe. The first developed in the Cisuralian (Asselian to Kungurian). The second is found in the south of France in Kazanian to Lower Tatarian strata, equivalent to the Roadian-Wordian. The third and youngest, dated as Lopingian, is only found in Italy, in the Bolzano Basin. Because of sedimentary gaps, limited observations, sometimes erroneous determinations, and ichnospecies with great vertical distribution, it currently appears that footprints have a low utility for biochronological resolution. Nevertheless, they allow us to discriminate three time intervals in the Permian, as is also the case for skeletal remains.
Figures & Tables
Non-Marine Permian Biostratigraphy and Biochronology
During the Permian, the single supercontinent Pangaea stretched from pole to pole. Early Permian glacial deposits are found in southern Gondwana. Along the sutures of Pangaea, mountain ranges towered over vast tropical lowlands. Interior areas included dry deserts where dune sands accumulated. Gypsum and halite beds document the evaporation of hot, shallow seas that formed the most extensive salt deposits in the geological record. The Permian period (251 to 299 Ma) encompasses nine ages (stages) arranged into three epochs (series). Most of the Permian marine timescale has been defined by global stratotype sections and points for the stage boundaries. This volume presents new data regarding the biostratigraphy and biochronology of the non-marine Permian and provides a basis for temporally ordering Permian geological and biotic history on land, and correlating that history to events in the marine realm.