Permo-Carboniferous climate: Early Pennsylvanian to Late Permian climate development of central Europe in a regional and global context
Published:January 01, 2006
Marco Roscher, Joerg W. Schneider, 2006. "Permo-Carboniferous climate: Early Pennsylvanian to Late Permian climate development of central Europe in a regional and global context", Non-Marine Permian Biostratigraphy and Biochronology, Spencer G. Lucas, Giuseppe Cassinis, Joerg W. Schneider
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A well-justified stratigraphical correlation of continental successions and new palaeogeographic reconstruction of Pangaea reveal new insights into the northern Pangaean climate development influenced by palaeogeography, palaeotopography, glacio-eustatic sealevel changes and ocean currents. The overall Permo-Carboniferous aridization trend was interrupted by five wet phases. These are linked to the Gondwana icecap. The aridization and weakening of wet phases over time were not only caused by the drift of northern Pangaea to the arid climatic belt, but also by the successive closure of the Rheic Ocean, which caused the expansion of arid/semi-arid environments in the Lower/Middle Permian. The end of the Gondwana glaciation rearranged ocean circulation, leading to a cold, coast-parallel ocean current west of northern Pangaea, blocking moisture coming with westerly winds. The maximum of aridity was reached during the Roadian/Wordian. The Trans-Pangaean Mountain Belt was non-existent. Its single diachronous parts never exceeded an average elevation of 2000 m. The maximum elevation shifted during time from east to west. The Hercynian orogen never acted as an orographic east-west barrier, and the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone was widely displaced, causing four seasons (dry summer/winter, wet spring/autumn) at the equator and a strong monsoon system.
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Non-Marine Permian Biostratigraphy and Biochronology
During the Permian, the single supercontinent Pangaea stretched from pole to pole. Early Permian glacial deposits are found in southern Gondwana. Along the sutures of Pangaea, mountain ranges towered over vast tropical lowlands. Interior areas included dry deserts where dune sands accumulated. Gypsum and halite beds document the evaporation of hot, shallow seas that formed the most extensive salt deposits in the geological record. The Permian period (251 to 299 Ma) encompasses nine ages (stages) arranged into three epochs (series). Most of the Permian marine timescale has been defined by global stratotype sections and points for the stage boundaries. This volume presents new data regarding the biostratigraphy and biochronology of the non-marine Permian and provides a basis for temporally ordering Permian geological and biotic history on land, and correlating that history to events in the marine realm.