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Hydrogeochemical modelling was used to interpret water-sample analyses of three European aquifers: the East Midlands Triassic Sandstone (UK), the Tertiary Ledo-Paniselian (Belgium) and the Aveiro Cretaceous aquifer (Portugal). Soil CO2 pressures at recharge, derived from inverse chemical modelling, correlate well with δ18O of the water. Higher soil CO2 pressures correspond to less negative δ18O of the recharge water, indicating higher recharge temperatures. This trend is confirmed by noble gas temperatures from the East Midlands aquifer. Cation exchange and carbonate reactions were the most important chemical processes that contributed to the groundwater composition of all three aquifers. Transport modelling of the water quality of the Ledo-Paniselian aquifer confirmed the importance of cation exchange and elucidated that recharge of this aquifer occurs through preferential pathways.

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