Hydrochemical modelling as a tool for understanding palaeowaters
W. J. M. Van Der Kemp, C. A. J. Appelo, M. T. Condesso De Melo, I. Gaus, C. J. Milne, K. Walraevens, 2001. "Hydrochemical modelling as a tool for understanding palaeowaters", Palaeowaters in Coastal Europe: Evolution of Groundwater since the Late Pleistocene, W. M. Edmunds, C. J. Milne
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Hydrogeochemical modelling was used to interpret water-sample analyses of three European aquifers: the East Midlands Triassic Sandstone (UK), the Tertiary Ledo-Paniselian (Belgium) and the Aveiro Cretaceous aquifer (Portugal). Soil CO2 pressures at recharge, derived from inverse chemical modelling, correlate well with δ18O of the water. Higher soil CO2 pressures correspond to less negative δ18O of the recharge water, indicating higher recharge temperatures. This trend is confirmed by noble gas temperatures from the East Midlands aquifer. Cation exchange and carbonate reactions were the most important chemical processes that contributed to the groundwater composition of all three aquifers. Transport modelling of the water quality of the Ledo-Paniselian aquifer confirmed the importance of cation exchange and elucidated that recharge of this aquifer occurs through preferential pathways.
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Palaeowaters in Coastal Europe contains 17 contributions from an international array of authors. They discuss the history of groundwater evolution during the late Pleistocene in the coastal areas of Europe from the Baltic region to the Iberian peninsula and the Canary Islands. Geochemical and geophysical techniques for evaluating palaeowaters are reviewed. The focus of the book is on changes in the hydrogeological regime during the Quaternary and their impacts on groundwater movement and chemistry in European coastal aquifers.
The work summarized in the papers was carried out by a partnership of European scientists under the auspices of the PALAEAUX project, an EC initiative. Researchers from the fields of hydrogeology, geochemistry, isotope hydrology and Quaternary studies attempted to reconstruct the most probable movement of groundwater in the study area over the past 100 000 years and its response to climatic events of global significance during the last glacial cycle. The results of this work, summarized in this volume, allow a better understanding of the water resources found at and near the coastlines of northern and western Europe. During times of lowered sea level, it appears that groundwaters were replenished to depths greater than occur at the present day. These pristine freshwater reserves are an irreplaceable asset. Their location at coastlines where populations and water demands are high and often seasonal means that they need careful management to avoid over-exploitation or contamination. The inevitable conflicts that this resource management creates are discussed.
Palaeowaters in Coastal Europe: evolution of groundwater since the late Pleistocene will be of interest to Quarternary scientists, hydrogeologists, marine scientists engaged in coastal research and those involved in environmental science and the management of groundwater assests.