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Gondwanaland was reconstructed by first forming East Gondwanaland (India, Antarctica and Australia) and then closing East Gondwanaland to Africa with Madagascar in a tight northern fit against Somalia. The poles of rotation to form Gondwanaland follow Powell et al. (1988), Lawver and Scotese (1987), Lawver et al. (1992), and Veevers et al. (1991). Paleolatitudes found from the Gondwanan apparent polar-wander path documented by Li et al. (1993a, 1993b) show that South America and southern Africa were in high latitudes in the Devonian and Early Carboniferous, while Australia was in low latitudes, and that during the Late Carboniferous to the end of the Permian, Australia and adjacent Antarctica were in high latitudes while southern South America and southern Africa were in middle-to-low latitudes. The movement of the paleopole along the Panthalassan margin toward the Antarctic Peninsula during the Triassic to Early Jurassic placed most of the Panthalassan margin in middle to high latitudes during the early Mesozoic.

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