Salt extrusion at Kuh-e-Jahani, Iran, from June 1994 to November 1997
Christopher J. Talbot, Sergei Medvedev, Mehdi Alavi, Hassan Shahrivar, Esmael Heidari, 1999. "Salt extrusion at Kuh-e-Jahani, Iran, from June 1994 to November 1997", Salt, Shale and Igneous Diapirs in and around Europe, Bruno C. Vendeville, Yossi Mart, Jean-Louis Vigneresse
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Kuh-e-Jahani is one of the largest extrusions of salt currently active in the Zagros mountains. Salt rises from about 4 km below sea level to nearly 1.5 km, above, where, unable to support its own weight, it spreads over the surrounding scenery in a process responsible for present and past allochthonous salt sheets elsewhere. We report vertical movements and apparent horizontal displacements of 43 markers dispersed over this mountain of salt for 4.5 years in three consecutive intervals, the first of 18 months and two others of 12 months. The geometry and inferred flow rate of the salt changed between surveys emphasizing that the gravity spreading is not steady. Our field readings of the dimensions and velocities of the salt at Kuh-e-Jahani are used to tune a simple numerical model and constrain the viscosity of the salt to between 1016 and 1017 Pa s−1, its rate of surface dissolution to 2–3 cm a−1, and its rate of rise out of its orifice at 2–3 m a−1 for c. 55 ka. These results imply that vigorous extrusion of salt at Kuh-e-Jahani is probably close to evacuating its deep source and that this mountain will soon begin to waste as salt dissolution overtakes extrusion. This progress report is warranted because our results have significant implications for sophisticated engineering in salt.
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Salt, Shale and Igneous Diapirs in and around Europe
The ten articles in this book describe the mode of emplacement of various types of intrusions (salt diapirs, mud volcanoes and magmatic bodies) by means of theoretical reasoning, analogue and analytical modelling, interpretation of seismic and field data, and geodetic surveying. All the articles emphasize the role of regional tectonics in driving or controlling the emplacement of the intrusions. The selection of articles includes examples from Spain, Romania, onshore and offshore Italy, the Eastern Mediterranean, Israel and iran.
Better understanding of the mode of emplacement of these intrusions has applications in hydrocarbon exploration (e.g., where salt structures or mud diapirs are present) and in the mining industry (where mineralization is related to the emplacement of batholiths).