FIB-SEM and TEM Investigations of an Organic-rich Shale Maturation Series from the Lower Toarcian Posidonia Shale, Germany: Nanoscale Pore System and Fluid-rock Interactions
Published:January 01, 2013
Sylvain Bernard, Leon Brown, Richard Wirth, Anja Schreiber, Hans-Martin Schulz, Brian Horsfield, Andrew C. Aplin, Eliza J. Mathia, 2013. "FIB-SEM and TEM Investigations of an Organic-rich Shale Maturation Series from the Lower Toarcian Posidonia Shale, Germany: Nanoscale Pore System and Fluid-rock Interactions", Electron Microscopy of Shale Hydrocarbon Reservoirs, Wayne K. Camp, Elizabeth Diaz, Barry Wawak
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Although shale gas systems constitute a new target for commercial hydrocarbon production, only a little attention has been paid to the evolution of these unconventional systems with increasing thermal maturation. This study reports the characterization of samples of the Lower Toarcian (Lower Jurassic) Posidonia Shale from northern Germany at varying levels of thermal maturity. Observations were made using an original combination of focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The paper documents the formation of microfracture-filling bitumen in close assotiation with kerogen residues with increasing maturity. Porosity evolves from mostly submicrometric interparticle pores in immature samples to intramineral and intraorganic pores in overmature (gas mature) samples. This intraorganic nanoporosity has most likely come about by the exsolution of gaseous hydrocarbon and been hydrocarbon wet during the thermal maturation processes. Although FIB-SEM and TEM images are small compared to field size, this study emphasizes the need for nanoscale imaging to better constrain hydrocarbon generation processes in gas shale systems.
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Electron Microscopy of Shale Hydrocarbon Reservoirs
The purpose of this memoir is to provide a practical reference for geologists, geophysicists, engineers, and students to gain a better understanding of the various state-of-the-art techniques and applications of electron microscopy for shale hydrocarbon reservoir evaluation. This reference volume is intended for both specialists and non-specialists alike and will serve as a practical guide for petrographic interpretation and reservoir analog studies. This book contains 13 highly illustrated peer-reviewed papers that describe modern techniques and recent case studies, and a catalog of nearly 250 described SEM images of known productive and potential shale hydrocarbon reservoirs in the United States. The included DVD contains a digital copy of the printed material, plus supplemental supporting data, additional color images, and digital reservoir model three-dimensional animation files.