Microfabrics Related to Porosity Development, Sedimentary and Diagenetic Processes, and Composition of Unconventional Resource Shale Reservoirs as Determined by Conventional Scanning Electron Microscopy
Roger M. Slatt, Neal R. O’Brien, 2013. "Microfabrics Related to Porosity Development, Sedimentary and Diagenetic Processes, and Composition of Unconventional Resource Shale Reservoirs as Determined by Conventional Scanning Electron Microscopy", Electron Microscopy of Shale Hydrocarbon Reservoirs, Wayne K. Camp, Elizabeth Diaz, Barry Wawak
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This paper describes and illustrates features of shales and mudstones at the nanometer and micrometer scales using standard scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) techniques. Microfabric observations at these scales not only provide insights into sedimentary and postdepositional processes but also offer evidence useful in understanding storage and primary migration patterns in unconventional shales. The images illustrated are suggested as references to guide future shale studies related to shale porosity and permeability. Examples are provided of various shales (Barnett, Woodford, Eagle Ford, Rhinestreet, Fayetteville, and Marcellus). Microfabric and pore features illustrated include clay flakes related to open-network floccules and clay-alighed fabric, plus other features produced by nonclay minerals. Organic matter produced by zooplankton and algae (e.g., coccolithophores, Tasmanites) is described because it may form organic mucus that adheres to and helps aggregate clay flakes. Organic matter is also common within porous fecal pellets. Coccolithophores, sponge spicules, and foraminifera tests contain hollow internal chambers, which provide porosity and probably permeability, even when filled with clay minerals. Conventional SEM provides a rapid and relatively inexpensive way of evaluating pores and microfabrics in shales.
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Electron Microscopy of Shale Hydrocarbon Reservoirs
The purpose of this memoir is to provide a practical reference for geologists, geophysicists, engineers, and students to gain a better understanding of the various state-of-the-art techniques and applications of electron microscopy for shale hydrocarbon reservoir evaluation. This reference volume is intended for both specialists and non-specialists alike and will serve as a practical guide for petrographic interpretation and reservoir analog studies. This book contains 13 highly illustrated peer-reviewed papers that describe modern techniques and recent case studies, and a catalog of nearly 250 described SEM images of known productive and potential shale hydrocarbon reservoirs in the United States. The included DVD contains a digital copy of the printed material, plus supplemental supporting data, additional color images, and digital reservoir model three-dimensional animation files.