The Triassic Zacatecas Formation in Central Mexico: Paleotectonic, Paleogeographic, and Paleobiogeographic Implications
Claudio Bartolini, Abelardo Cantú-Chapa, Harold Lang, Rafael Barboza-Gudiño, 2001. "The Triassic Zacatecas Formation in Central Mexico: Paleotectonic, Paleogeographic, and Paleobiogeographic Implications", The Western Gulf of Mexico Basin: Tectonics,Sedimentary Basins, and Petroleum Systems, Claudio Bartolini, Richard T. Buffler, Abelardo Cantú-Chapa
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Middle to Late Triassic turbidite sequences are exposed in the states of Zacatecas and San Luís Potosí in central Mexico. These strata, assigned mostly to the Zacatecas Formation, accumulated in continental slope, toe-of-slope, and basin-plain environments along the passive continental margin of western Pangea. Strata of the Zacatecas Formation are age equivalent to rocks of the Antimonio Formation and Barranca Group in Sonora, the La Boca Formation in Tamaulipas and Nuevo León, and unnamed strata in Baja California. Based on their age, the Zacatecas turbidites correlate with a drop in sea level during the Permian-Triassic assembly of Pangea. The Triassic paleogeographic setting of Mexico is complex and poorly understood, because only dispersed Triassic outcrops exist across Mexico. However, the biogeographic affinities of the faunas from the Zacatecas Formation in central Mexico with those from equivalent strata in Baja California and Sonora suggest that these three regions were connected through the eastern Pacific, and that the Atlantic Ocean did not exist during the Ladinian-Carnian. The Zacatecas sequences underwent three periods of compressive deformation: one during their obduction onto the continental margin at some time during the latest Triassic-earliest Jurassic (?); a second during the Middle to Late Jurassic (Oxfordian) (?), apparently related to transpression; and a third during the Late Cretaceous to Tertiary Laramide orogeny.
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Carbon dioxide (CO 2) is the main compound identified as affecting the stability of the Earth's climate. A significant reduction in the volume of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere is a key mechanism for mitigating climate change. Geological storage of CO 2, or the injection and long-term stabilization of large volumes of CO 2 in the subsurface in saline aquifers, in existing hydrocarbon reservoirs or in unmineable coal seams, is one of the more technologically advanced options available. A number of studies have been carried out and are reported here. They are aimed at understanding the safety, physical and chemical behaviour and long-term fate of CO 2 when stored in geological formations. Until efficient, alternative energy options can be developed, geological storage of CO 2, the subject of this volume, provides a mechanism to reduce carbon emissions significantly whilst continuing to meet the global demand for energy.