Classification and Origin of Petroleum in the Mexican Gulf Coast Basin: An Overview
Mario A. Guzmán-Vega, Lilia Castro Ortíz, Juan R. Román-Ramos, Luis Medrano-Morales, Lourdes Clara Valdéz, Emilio Vázquez-Covarrubias, Genaro Ziga-Rodríguez, 2001. "Classification and Origin of Petroleum in the Mexican Gulf Coast Basin: An Overview", The Western Gulf of Mexico Basin: Tectonics,Sedimentary Basins, and Petroleum Systems, Claudio Bartolini, Richard T. Buffler, Abelardo Cantú-Chapa
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A geochemical and isotopic characterization of a wide selection of the produced oils in the petroleum subprovinces from the Mexican Gulf Coast Basin has revealed five major genetic groups. Their distribution and chemical features appear to reflect multiple sources, fades variations, maturation, and postfilling alteration processes. Each group is correlated with a specific generative source, namely (1) Oxfordian marine marl-dominated, (2) Oxfordian marine carbonate-dominated, (3) Tithonian marine marl-dominated, (4) Cretaceous marine carbonate-evaporitic, and (5) Tertiary marine deltaic siliciclastics.
Biomarker and isotope differences observed in the Tithonian oils can be interpreted in terms of facies variations. The Tithonian generative subsystem has produced more than 80% of all oil reserves from the Mexican Gulf Coast Basin. Oil reserves have accumulated both onshore and offshore and throughout the stratigraphic column from Kimmeridgian to Pleistocene in marine-siliciclastic and carbonate reservoirs, suggesting that vertical pathways are an important secondary migration mechanism.
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Carbon dioxide (CO 2) is the main compound identified as affecting the stability of the Earth's climate. A significant reduction in the volume of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere is a key mechanism for mitigating climate change. Geological storage of CO 2, or the injection and long-term stabilization of large volumes of CO 2 in the subsurface in saline aquifers, in existing hydrocarbon reservoirs or in unmineable coal seams, is one of the more technologically advanced options available. A number of studies have been carried out and are reported here. They are aimed at understanding the safety, physical and chemical behaviour and long-term fate of CO 2 when stored in geological formations. Until efficient, alternative energy options can be developed, geological storage of CO 2, the subject of this volume, provides a mechanism to reduce carbon emissions significantly whilst continuing to meet the global demand for energy.