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Tethyan Zinc-Lead Metallogeny in Europe, North Africa, and Asia

By
Neal A. Reynolds
Neal A. Reynolds
CSA Global, 3 Ord Street, West Perth, Western Australia 6005
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Duncan Large
Duncan Large
Paracelsusstr. 40, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany
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Published:
January 01, 2010

Abstract

The Tethyan belt extends throughout the circum-Mediterranean and eastward through Turkey, Iran, and Pakistan to China and Southeast Asia. The belt is characterized by rift zones with bimodal volcanic rocks and thick clastic sedimentary rock fill, passive-margin basins with platform carbonates, and calc-alkaline island-arc volcanic rock sequences. It is known primarily for its copper and gold endowment, but it includes several large and globally significant zinc-lead provinces. These include the Basque-Cantabrian basin (Réocin) in northern Spain, the Atlas zinc-lead district in Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, the zinc-lead-silver deposits in the Balkans—including the Trepča district extending south to Macedonia and Greece—the zinc districts in central Anatolia, Turkey, and Iran—such as Angouran and Mehdiabad—and deposits such as Padaeng, in Thailand, and Jinding, in southwestern China.

Late Carboniferous to Triassic rifting in northern Gondwana and opening of the Neotethys Ocean marks the commencement of the most significant zinc-lead metallogenic cycle and initiated the break-up of Pangea. Rifting migrated eastward and broad Permian to Cenozoic carbonate shelf and passive-margin basin sequences were deposited. The thick carbonate sequences provided ideal trap settings for MVT deposits, with zinc- and lead-rich mineralizing fluid flow initiated by Cretaceous to Cenozoic inversion, collision, and uplift on the Tethyan margins. High-temperature carbonate-replacement and vein-type mineralization is also associated with magmatically induced hydrothermal activity during the Cenozoic compressional events. Unusual hybrid deposits involved both basinal and magmatic fluid inputs. Subsequent uplift and oxidation has resulted in the development of economically significant nonsulfide zinc deposits throughout the belt.

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Contents

Special Publications of the Society of Economic Geologists

The Challenge of Finding New Mineral Resources: Global Metallogeny, Innovative Exploration, and New Discoveries

Richard J. Goldfarb
Richard J. Goldfarb
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Erin E. Marsh
Erin E. Marsh
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Thomas Monecke
Thomas Monecke
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Society of Economic Geologists
Volume
15
ISBN electronic:
9781629490403
Publication date:
January 01, 2010

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