Rudzki, Maurycy Pius
The beginning of research in seismic anisotropy can be traced precisely to Maurycy Pius Rudzki. When Rudzki assumed his duties as the first professor of geophysics at Jagiellonian University (Uniwersytet Jagielloński) in Kraków in early 1896, he stated that his research would focus on seismology, primarily the propagation of seismic waves in anisotropic media. During the next 20 years, he published regularly on the subject. Five of his major papers deserve to be studied even today.
The first geophysical institute with a professor of geophysics as director was created on November 1, 1895, when the Austrian minister of education appointed Rudzki as distinguished professor of mathematical geophysics and meteorology to the newly established chair in the Philosophical Faculty of Jagiellonian University.
Rudzki was born in eastern Galicia (part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire) as a subject of the Russian tsar, with family holdings in White Russia (Belarus). Rudzki attended secondary school in Kamenets-Podolsk (now in the Ukraine). He obtained degrees in Lemberg, Vienna, and Charkov and was fluent in the major European languages.
Figures & Tables
In this chapter, we give a brief synopsis of each of the classic papers referred to in this collection. Where relevant, we reproduce the basic equations, recast in modern notation. Supporting works also are referred to. They are listed in the “General References” section.
Table 1 is a quick outline of the key contributions of each paper reprinted in this book.
Robert Hooke, “Potentia Restitutiva, or Spring” (Oxford, 1678)
The article by Robert Hooke, “Potentia Restitutiva, or Spring,” contains the statement of the proportional relation between stress and strain universally referred to as Hooke’s law. Although the English language has evolved somewhat since 1678, the article does not require translation. Hooke describes a variety of experiments, accompanied by illustrations, confirming the stress/strain relation over a wide range of applied loads. He emphasizes the great generality of his results.
Based on his experimental work from 1660 onward, Hooke first published his law in 1676 in the form of an anagram in Latin,
which he later revealed to be “ut tensio sic vis.” Roughly translated, this means “as the force, so is the displacement” (Love, 1911; Boyce and DiPrima, 1976).
In his treatise, Hooke examined the behavior of springs, so his first casting of the equations dealt with the restoring force on a spring, for a given displacement: