G. G. Stokes, M.A., 2007. "On the Theories of the Internal Friction of Fluids in Motion, and of the Equilibrium and Motion of Elastic Solids", Classics of Elastic Wave Theory, Michael A. Pelissier, Henning Hoeber, Norbert van de Coevering, Ian F. Jones
Download citation file:
The equations of Fluid Motion commonly employed depend upon the fundamental hypothesis that the mutual action of two adjacent elements of the fluid is normal to the surface which separates them. From this assumption the equality of pressure in all directions is easily deduced, and then the equations of motion are formed according to D’Alembert’s principle. This appears to me the most natural light in which to view the subject; for the two principles of the absence of tangential action, and of the equality of pressure in all directions ought not to be assumed as independent hypotheses, as is sometimes done, inas-much as the latter is a necessary consequence of the former. The equations of motion so formed are very complicated, but yet they admit of solution in some instances, especially in the case of small oscillations. The results of the theory agree on the whole with obser-vation, so far as the time of oscillation is concerned. But there is a whole class of motions of which the common theory takes no cognizance whatever, namely, those which depend on the tangential action called into play by the sliding of one portion of a fluid along another, or of a fluid along the surface of a solid, or of a different fluid, that action in fact which performs the same part with fluids that friction does with solids.
Thus, when a ball pendulum oscillates in an indefinitely extended fluid, the common theory gives the arc of oscillation constant. Observation however shows
Figures & Tables
In this chapter, we give a brief synopsis of each of the classic papers referred to in this collection. Where relevant, we reproduce the basic equations, recast in modern notation. Supporting works also are referred to. They are listed in the “General References” section.
Table 1 is a quick outline of the key contributions of each paper reprinted in this book.
Robert Hooke, “Potentia Restitutiva, or Spring” (Oxford, 1678)
The article by Robert Hooke, “Potentia Restitutiva, or Spring,” contains the statement of the proportional relation between stress and strain universally referred to as Hooke’s law. Although the English language has evolved somewhat since 1678, the article does not require translation. Hooke describes a variety of experiments, accompanied by illustrations, confirming the stress/strain relation over a wide range of applied loads. He emphasizes the great generality of his results.
Based on his experimental work from 1660 onward, Hooke first published his law in 1676 in the form of an anagram in Latin,
which he later revealed to be “ut tensio sic vis.” Roughly translated, this means “as the force, so is the displacement” (Love, 1911; Boyce and DiPrima, 1976).
In his treatise, Hooke examined the behavior of springs, so his first casting of the equations dealt with the restoring force on a spring, for a given displacement: