George Green, 2007. "On the Laws of the Reflexion and Refraction of Light at the Common Surface of Two Noncrystallized Media", Classics of Elastic Wave Theory, Michael A. Pelissier, Henning Hoeber, Norbert van de Coevering, Ian F. Jones
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M. Cauchy seems to have been the first who saw fully the utility of applying to the Theory of Light those formulae which represent the motions of a system of molecules acting on each other by mutually attractive and repulsive forces; supposing always that in the mutual action of any two particles, the particles may be regarded as points animated by forces directed along the right line which joins them. This last supposition, if applied to those compound particles, at least, which are separable by mechanical division, seems rather restrictive; as many phenomena, those of crystallization for instance, seem to indicate certain polarities in these particles. If, however, this were not the case, we are so perfectly ignorant of the mode of action of the elements of the luminiferous ether on each other, that it would seem a safer method to take some general physical principle as the basis of our reasoning, rather than assume certain modes of action, which, after all, may be widely different from the mechanism employed by nature; more especially if this principle include in itself, as a particular case, those before used by M. Cauchy and others, and also lead to a much more simple process of calculation. The principle selected as the basis of the reasoning contained in the following paper is this: In whatever way the elements of any material system may act upon each other, if all the internal forces exerted be multi-plied by the elements of their respective directions, the total
Figures & Tables
In this chapter, we give a brief synopsis of each of the classic papers referred to in this collection. Where relevant, we reproduce the basic equations, recast in modern notation. Supporting works also are referred to. They are listed in the “General References” section.
Table 1 is a quick outline of the key contributions of each paper reprinted in this book.
Robert Hooke, “Potentia Restitutiva, or Spring” (Oxford, 1678)
The article by Robert Hooke, “Potentia Restitutiva, or Spring,” contains the statement of the proportional relation between stress and strain universally referred to as Hooke’s law. Although the English language has evolved somewhat since 1678, the article does not require translation. Hooke describes a variety of experiments, accompanied by illustrations, confirming the stress/strain relation over a wide range of applied loads. He emphasizes the great generality of his results.
Based on his experimental work from 1660 onward, Hooke first published his law in 1676 in the form of an anagram in Latin,
which he later revealed to be “ut tensio sic vis.” Roughly translated, this means “as the force, so is the displacement” (Love, 1911; Boyce and DiPrima, 1976).
In his treatise, Hooke examined the behavior of springs, so his first casting of the equations dealt with the restoring force on a spring, for a given displacement: