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In Chapter 4, the basic source radiation patterns and equipment used to collect 3C and VSP data are described, along with free-surface and seabed responses. Acquisition geometries are reviewed in terms of the illumination properties of P- and PS-waves, with an emphasis on common-offset-vector (COV) data and the properties of minimal data sets (MDSs). Application of these concepts to VSP geometries is discussed because they follow the same principles and guidelines as for surface seismic acquisition.

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