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In Chapter 2, an historical overview of the development of S-waves and VSP in the 20th century is presented. Early efforts focused on building strong S-wave sources; but after advancements in P-wave AVO and recognition of S-wave splitting, PS-waves began to dominate industry research in the 1990s. Although converted waves were well understood, VSP technology focused primarily on P-wave applications. As experience increased, the scope of applications broadened to include S-wave splitting and imaging through gas in addition to lithology discrimination.

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