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Book Chapter

Attributes

Published:
January 01, 2008

Abstract

What is petrophysics? Petrophysics (or rock physics) is the branch of geology that is concerned with the physical properties and behavior of rocks. Oil exploration requires direct and indirect measurements of the underground rock strata, the totality of which commonly is referred to as “the geology.” Well cores provide actual rock samples extracted from a well. Downhole instruments placed in oil wells provide direct measurements, or well logs, of the rocks in place. Cores and well logs are used to determine the petrophysics of the strata to help reveal potential oil-bearing reservoirs. Of interest in petrophysics are things such as rock type (e.g., sandstone, shale, limestone, etc.) and rock characteristics (e.g., porosity, permeability, fracturing, etc.).

The seismic method provides indirect measurements in the form of seismic records. The word indirect is appropriate because the seismic method uses a noninvasive technique (seismic waves and seismic recording instruments) to penetrate and record data from a remote body (the underground rocks). Similar techniques are radar, sonar, and ultrasonic medical imaging. Seismic records are made up of signals called traces, which record reflections of the seismic waves from the boundaries of different rock layers. Such rock-layer boundaries are called interfaces (or horizons). In some cases, horizons are approximately horizontal planar surfaces with low to moderate dips. In other cases, horizons are curved and contorted surfaces with steep dips.

Most familiar to us are water waves. Ancient Greek philosophers, many of whom were interested in music, hypothesized that a parallel exists between water waves and

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Contents

Society of Exploration Geophysicists Geophysical References Series

Digital Imaging and Deconvolution: The ABCs of Seismic Exploration and Processing

Enders A. Robinson
Enders A. Robinson
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Sven Treitel
Sven Treitel
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Society of Exploration Geophysicists
Volume
15
ISBN electronic:
9781560801610
Publication date:
January 01, 2008

GeoRef

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