Calculation of Simultaneous Chemical Equilibria in Aqueous-Mineral-Gas Systems and its Application to Modeling Hydrothermal Processes
Mark H. Reed, 1998. "Calculation of Simultaneous Chemical Equilibria in Aqueous-Mineral-Gas Systems and its Application to Modeling Hydrothermal Processes", Techniques in Hydrothermal Ore Deposits Geology, Jeremy P. Richards, Peter B. Larson
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Geochemical processes in hydrothermal systems are complexly interconnected. Quantitative, whole-system modeling is one of the most effective ways to untangle the interdependent and counterposing chemical effects to determine what the actual natural processes may be. Examples of basic processes include precipitation of ore and gangue minerals in open space to form veins, metasomatic replacement of wall rock by alteration minerals, boiling of an ascending fluid, mixing of ascending and descending fluids, and condensation of boiled gases into cold ground water or into aerated fractures. The course of attendant chemical reactions depends on the combined effects of several of the processes, and the linkages among processes may be subtle. The quantitative details of species concentrations, as determined from chemical reactions, make the difference between whether a mineral precipitates or not.