Interpretation of Microseismic Fracture Images
Microseismic images are interpreted to infer the growth of the hydraulic-fracture geometry and to understand the microseismic geomechanical response to the injection. Interpretations can be classified as geometric (including the fracture dimensions and growth with time) or deformational (using microseismic source mechanisms and strength to interpret additional aspects of the fracture strains). Either type of interpretation is enhanced through integrated interpretation with other information, particularly geologic and geomechanical data. Various hydraulic-fracture aspects can be inferred, although a given project will have key characteristics that are most critical and required to address the specific monitoring objectives.
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Microseismic Imaging of Hydraulic Fracturing: Improved Engineering of Unconventional Shale Reservoirs
Microseismic monitoring is the key technology to image hydraulic fractures. With the recent industry focus on unconventional resources and the associated need for effective hydraulic fracture treatments to stimulate flow, microseismic monitoring has become a commonplace technology in the geophysical community. Microseismic has long been a niche geophysical technology to image fracturing, but the expansion of the technology over the last decade is evident by the increasing number of workshops, papers in various publications, and the sheer number of papers and associated dedicated sessions at the SEG annual meeting. This work aims to provide a practical user guide for survey design, quality control, interpretation, and application of microseismic hydraulic fracture monitoring. The book is intended to provide a comprehensive educational resource for microseismic hydraulic fracture imaging, with a focus on practical tips for executing a successful microseismic project. Limitations of the data and potential pitfalls are emphasized throughout.