Estimating the Microseismic Source Location
Microseismic processing involves computing aspects of the microseismic source from the recorded microseismic signals. Basic processing determines the source location of the microseismicity along with quality-control attributes, which together make up the foundation for interpreting hydraulic-fracture geometry. The spatial-temporal aspects of microseismic locations are the basic hypocentral quantifiable attributes, and they form the basis of many standard engineering workflows and applications. Hypocentral locations also are elementary to advanced processing workflows, which extract additional microseismic source attributes and information from the microseismic recordings to go beyond standard “dots-in-the-box” interpretations (discussed in Chapter 5). Therefore, location accuracy is fundamental for a successful project and is primarily subject to high S/N recordings and an accurate velocity model validated with a controlled source from a known location.