Estimating the Microseismic Source Location
Microseismic processing involves computing aspects of the microseismic source from the recorded microseismic signals. Basic processing determines the source location of the microseismicity along with quality-control attributes, which together make up the foundation for interpreting hydraulic-fracture geometry. The spatial-temporal aspects of microseismic locations are the basic hypocentral quantifiable attributes, and they form the basis of many standard engineering workflows and applications. Hypocentral locations also are elementary to advanced processing workflows, which extract additional microseismic source attributes and information from the microseismic recordings to go beyond standard “dots-in-the-box” interpretations (discussed in Chapter 5). Therefore, location accuracy is fundamental for a successful project and is primarily subject to high S/N recordings and an accurate velocity model validated with a controlled source from a known location.
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Microseismic Imaging of Hydraulic Fracturing: Improved Engineering of Unconventional Shale Reservoirs
Microseismic monitoring is the key technology to image hydraulic fractures. With the recent industry focus on unconventional resources and the associated need for effective hydraulic fracture treatments to stimulate flow, microseismic monitoring has become a commonplace technology in the geophysical community. Microseismic has long been a niche geophysical technology to image fracturing, but the expansion of the technology over the last decade is evident by the increasing number of workshops, papers in various publications, and the sheer number of papers and associated dedicated sessions at the SEG annual meeting. This work aims to provide a practical user guide for survey design, quality control, interpretation, and application of microseismic hydraulic fracture monitoring. The book is intended to provide a comprehensive educational resource for microseismic hydraulic fracture imaging, with a focus on practical tips for executing a successful microseismic project. Limitations of the data and potential pitfalls are emphasized throughout.