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The determination of degree of order in minerals and other crystalline materials is an important problem usually approached by X-ray diffraction techniques. Some problems, particularly that of Al–Si ordering, are difficult by X-ray methods. Other tools, particularly vibrational spectroscopy, can also provide useful information. Infrared spectra have long been known to be sensitive to short-range order. Laser Raman spectroscopy is really too new to evaluate properly, but first evidence is that Raman spectra are sensitive to intermediate or long-range order.

This chapter will review present knowledge, such as it is, on the application of vibrational spectroscopy to order-disorder problems....

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