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Book Chapter

Shortening, structural relief and drainage evolution in inverted rifts: insights from the Atlas Mountains, the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and the Pyrenees

By
Julien Babault
Julien Babault
1
Departament de Geologia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona), Spain
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Antonio Teixell
Antonio Teixell
1
Departament de Geologia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona), Spain
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Lucía Struth
Lucía Struth
1
Departament de Geologia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona), Spain
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Jean Van Den Driessche
Jean Van Den Driessche
2
Géosciences Rennes, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, Rennes, France
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María Luisa Arboleya
María Luisa Arboleya
2
Géosciences Rennes, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, Rennes, France
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Eliseo Tesón
Eliseo Tesón
3
Instituto Colombiano del Petróleo-Ecopetrol, km 7 Via a Piedecuesta, Bucaramanga, Colombia
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Published:
January 01, 2013

Abstract

The Atlas, Eastern Cordillera and Pyrenees are thick-skinned thrust-fold belts formed by tectonic inversion of rift basins in continental settings. A comparison of shortening between them shows a gradation from 20–25% in the central High Atlas, to 25–30% in the Eastern Cordillera, and c. 40% in the Pyrenees. Accordingly, there is a structural variation from interior zones with low structural relief and isolated basement massifs in the first two cases, to an axial culmination of stacked basement thrust sheets in the Pyrenees. This results in marked topographic and drainage variation: the High Atlas and Eastern Cordillera contain axial plateaus dominated by structure-controlled longitudinal rivers and orogen flanks with slope-controlled transverse rivers, whereas the Pyrenees show a two-sided wedge profile dominated by transverse rivers. In spite of singularities exhibited by each orogen, we propose that this spatial variation can be understood as reflecting different degrees of evolution in mountain building. Rapidly incising, transverse rivers are capturing earlier longitudinal streams of the Atlas and Eastern Cordillera, thus reducing their axial plateaux, which will eventually disappear into a transverse-dominated drainage. This pattern of landscape evolution may be characteristic of inversion orogens as they develop from initial stages of inversion to full accretion.

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Contents

Geological Society, London, Special Publications

Thick-Skin-Dominated Orogens: From Initial Inversion to Full Accretion

M. Nemčok
M. Nemčok
EGI, University of Utah, USA
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A. Mora
A. Mora
Ecopetrol S. A., Colombia
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J. W. Cosgrove
J. W. Cosgrove
Royal School of Mines, UK
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Geological Society of London
Volume
377
ISBN electronic:
9781862396388
Publication date:
January 01, 2013

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