Geology, volcanic history and petrology of Vulcano (central Aeolian archipelago)
G. De Astis, F. Lucchi, P. Dellino, L. La Volpe, C. A. Tranne, M. L. Frezzotti, A. Peccerillo, 2013. "Geology, volcanic history and petrology of Vulcano (central Aeolian archipelago)", The Aeolian Islands Volcanoes, F. Lucchi, A. Peccerillo, J. Keller, C. A. Tranne, P. L. Rossi
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Vulcano is an active NW–SE-elongated composite volcano located in the central Aeolian archipelago. Based on available radiometric ages and tephrochronology, the exposed volcanism started at c. 127 ka and spread through eight Eruptive Epochs separated by volcano-tectonic events and major quiescent stages. Various eruptive centres and two intersecting multi-stage calderas resulted from such evolution. Vulcano geological history displays several changes of eruption magnitude, eruption styles and composition of magmas through time. Vulcano rocks range from basalt to rhyolite and show variable alkali contents, roughly increasing during time. Magmas with low to intermediate SiO2 contents and high-K to shoshonite affinity prevail in the early Epochs 1–5 (c. 127–28 ka), whereas intermediate to high-SiO2 shoshonite and potassic alkaline products dominate the last three Epochs (<30 ka). This sharp increase in silicic products is related to the shallowing of the plumbing system and resulting major role of the differentiation processes in shallow-level reservoirs. Radiogenic isotope compositions are variable (87Sr/86Sr=0.70424–0.70587, 143Nd/144Nd=0.51254–0.51276, 206Pb/204Pb=19.305–19.759, 207Pb/204Pb=15.659–15.752, 208Pb/204Pb=39.208–39.559) as a result of both source heterogeneities and shallow-level interaction of magmas with continental crust. The compositional variations of mafic magmatism with time suggest that the source zone changed from a metasomatized, fertile, ocean island basalt- (OIB-) like mantle to a metasomatized depleted lithospheric mantle.
The 10 000 scale geological map of Vulcano is included on the DVD in the printed book and can also be accessed online at http://www.geolsoc.org.uk/Memoir37-electronic. Also included is a full geochemical data set for Vulcano.
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The Aeolian Islands form one of the most active geological structures in the Mediterranean area, comprising a number of active (Stromboli and Vulcano) and dormant (Panarea and Lipari) volcanoes. They have attracted the attention of scientists in modern and historical times and are the cradle of the scientific discipline of volcanology.
This Memoir provides information on geological features of the Aeolian Islands volcanoes at a regional scale and for each island. The stratigraphy, structural evolution, eruptive and magmatic history of the Islands is presented, along with the geodynamic setting of the Aeolian volcanism and implications for magma origin and evolution processes. Particular focus is given to the active and dormant volcanoes and the related natural hazards.
It includes new 1:10 000-scale geological maps of the Aeolian Islands and bathymetric maps of sectors of the Aeolian archipelago, together with an extended dataset of rock compositions.